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It only takes a minute to sign up. At the risk of being way too general in my answer, I will say that you should run an index maintenance process regularly. This presents the question: when does an index require to be rebuilt or reorganized? Rolando touched on this nicely. Again, I risk being extremely broad.
An index requires maintenance when the fragmentation level adversely affects performance. This level of fragmentation could vary based on the size and composition of the index.
Speaking for SQL Server, I tend to choose a index size and index fragmentation level at which point I begin performing index maintenance.
If an index contains less than pages, I will perform no maintenance. Remember though that a rebuild only updates the statistics object directly associated with the index. Other column statistics will need to be maintained separately. This answer is really just a long way to say: Yes, you should do routine index maintenance, but only on the indexes that need it. You should rebuild indexes when they become highly fragmented by special events. For example, you perform a large, bulk load of data into an indexed table.
So what if your indexes are becoming fragmented on a regular basis due to regular activity? Should you schedule regular rebuilds? How often should they run? Tom Kytein this classic Ask Tom threadrecommends:. Don't know how to say it better -- the index wants to be big and fat with extra space.
It is on a column you update -- moving the index entry from place to place in the index. One day the row has a code of "A", the next day the code is "G", then "Z" then "H" and so on. So the index entry for the row moves from place to place in the index. As it does so, it needs space -- will, if the space isn't there, we split the block into two -- and make space. Now the index is getting fat. Over time the index is x the size it was when you started and is "half or more empty" But that is OK since you move rows around.
Now when we move the rows around, we no longer have to split blocks to make room -- the room is already available. Then you come along and rebuild or drop and recreate the index which have the same effects -- just the rebuild is "safer" -- doesn't stand a chance of losing the index and can be faster as the index can be rebuilt by scanning the existing index instead of scanning the table and sorting and building a fresh index.
Now, all of that nice space is gone. We start the process of splitting the blocks all over again -- getting us right back to where we started. You would just be wasting your time to rebuild it again causing this vicious cycle to repeat itself.
A "fat" index i.
How to rebuild all the indexes of a database in SQL Server
However, when you read from that fat index you'll have to read more pages to get the same data because you're now sifting through more empty space. This slows your reads down. So, in read-heavy databases you want to regularly rebuild or reorganize your indexes.
How often and under what conditions? Matt M already has a concrete answer to this question. In databases that experience roughly equivalent read and write activity, or in databases that are write-heavy, you are likely harming your database's performance by rebuilding indexes regularly.
Resolve index fragmentation using by reorganizing or rebuilding indexes
Most people rebuild them on a regular basis so that they never get to fragmented.The entire techniques are estranged into various subdivisions to make this operation uncomplicated for users. Through stated procedures, users possibly will accomplish the task without any data loss. Towards the last part of this article, it also carries a professional method of rebuilding index in SQL Server.
The SQL Server index is analogous to the index of any book.TSQL: Rebuild All Indexes In A Database
This index assists to get a quick idea about contained data, but instead of navigating any book, it is a catalog of the SQL Server database. Whenever any search operation becomes performed in SQL, the SQL Server searches the value in its index and after that locates that entire row of data. Therefore, SQL Server does not perform a full table scanning process for searching any data and present us the required data through its indexes.
When the logical order of pages in an index does not match with its physical data order, the index fragmentation happens. The fragmentation also impinges on the executed queries and range scanning process. A lot of unused space may increase the number of pages in index. The index fragmentation can be monitored only via rebuilding or re-creating that index. This process eliminates the fragmentation and repossesses the storage space by compacting the size of pages.
In this defragmentation process, we set the particular or existing fill factor, and then, it maintains the index rows in adjacent pages. Rebuilding any index utilizes only some negligible system resources.
Rebuilding indexes also compact the number of index pages. The DMV defragments the index information and returns it to its exact size. Via DMV, users can acquire the information regarding to the amount of fragmentation in rows on a specific data page.
This can detect that the data reorganization is essential or not. Once the fragmentation in the index has been perceived then, its establishment is the next step. There is a usually a conventional resolution for each level of fragmentation based on the proportion of fragmentation:. Reconstruction of an index is necessary when the index fragmentation has attains to a significant percentage.
To rebuild any fragmented index of SQL Server, there may be two possible conditions i. In this section, we will discuss the method of recognizing and rebuilding any single or multiple indexes of any table using Transact-SQL.
Rebuilding all defragmented Indexes. Manual methods are risky as well as time taking too. Therefore, for preventing users via these cons of manual methods, we represent a powerful solution i. It automatically manages the index defragmentation along with its statistics updates intended for single or additional databases.
This is the method of automatically rebuilding or reorganizing any index as per its fragmentation level.This article describes how index defragmentation occurs and discusses its impact on query performance.
Once you determine the amount of fragmentation that exists for an indexyou can defragment an index by either reorganizing an index or rebuilding an index by running Transact-SQL commands in your tool of choice or by using SQL Server Management Studio. The first step in deciding which index defragmentation method to use is to analyze the index to determine the degree of fragmentation.
You detect fragmentation differently for rowstore indexes and columnstore indexes. By using sys. For partitioned indexes, sys. The result set returned by sys. Reorganizing an index is always executed online. To achieve availability similar to the reorganize option, you should rebuild indexes online. However, the actual values may vary from case to case. It is important that you experiment to determine the best threshold for your environment. For example, if a given index is used mainly for scan operations, removing fragmentation can improve performance of these operations.
The performance benefit is less noticeable for indexes that are used primarily for seek operations.
Similarly, removing fragmentation in a heap a table with no clustered index is especially useful for nonclustered index scan operations, but has little effect in lookup operations. Indexes with fragmentation or less than 5 percent do not need to be defragmented because the benefit from removing such a small amount of fragmentation is almost always vastly outweighed by the CPU cost incurred to reorganize or rebuild the index. Also, rebuilding or reorganizing small rowstore indexes generally does not reduce actually fragmentation.
The pages of small indexes are sometimes stored on mixed extents.
Best Way to Rebuild and Reorganize Index in SQL Server
Mixed extents are shared by up to eight objects, so the fragmentation in a small index might not be reduced after reorganizing or rebuilding it. See also Considerations specific to rebuilding rowstore indexes.
Use this information to compute the fragmentation in a specific index, all indexes on a table, all indexes in a database, or all indexes in all databases. The following example finds the average fragmentation percentage of all indexes in the HumanResources.
Employee table in the AdventureWorks database.In this post, we are going to see how to rebuild all the indexes of a database in SQL Server.
But what about when the DBA needs to rebuild all the indexes within a database? How can he achieve this? It is a fact that in some cases where a large amount of indexes in a database on SQL Server has a large percentage of fragmentation, then the recommended approach is to rebuild those indexes.
To this end, in the worst scenario, the DBA will need to rebuild the indexes in all the tables of the database. My previous post on the topic explained ways of rebuilding specific or all the indexes within a table. Under normal circumstances there is not a direct way allowing to rebuild all the indexes of a database with a single command. A workaround is to run different rebuild statements for each table. Learn more tips like this! Check our online course! Many live demonstrations and downloadable resources included!
Online index rebuild fails for the following cases:. Check out our latest software releases! Rate this article: 3 votes, average: 5. He has over 15 years of experience in the IT industry in various roles. Artemakis currently serves as the President of the Cyprus.
When you rebuild indexes Online, the underlying tables and associated indexes are available for queries and data modification during the index operation. When you rebuild indexes Offline, the operation acquires a Schema modification Sch-M lock on the table.
This prevents all user access to the underlying table for the duration of the operation. Online index rebuild is a more "convenient" option but before planning to do so you need to check all the prerequisites and guidelines links provided below in order to ensure that you can use this feature.
In the opposite case offline index rebuildyou will have to take into consideration that there will be downtime for each table during the offline rebuild process of its indexes. Enroll Now with Discount! Online index rebuild fails for the following cases: XML index Spatial index Large object data type columns: image, text, ntext, varchar maxnvarchar maxvarbinary maxand xml. I hope you found this article useful.
Drop me a line if you have any comments or questions! Subscribe to our newsletter and stay up to date!Indexes play an important role as they are one of the important aspects to high performance in SQL Server. Mainly SQL Server maintains indexes after any data modifications, still, maintenance of indexes are still required, due to Fragmentation.
Index fragmentation affect the performance of SQL Server, so it is recommended to monitor the level of fragmentation. Index fragmentation occurs in the form of gaps in data pages and logical fragmentation.
Thus, the only way to remove the unnecessary space and logical fragmentation is to rebuild indexes in SQL Server. In the following segment, we are going to discuss a step-by-step procedure to let users understand how to rebuild indexes in SQL Server in an absolute manner.
Before that, let us know when and how often should you restore indexes in SQL server. As the indexes become fragmented so, the performance of all indexes is degraded. The Rebuild Index task is a very good option to rebuild indexes to remove the logical fragmentation and free space, and updating statistics.
It is important to schedule tasks for timely rebuilding indexes in SQL Server database. Moreover, if the index gets rebuilt, locks can be placed on index, prevent someone from accessing it while rebuilding occurs. If anyone tries to access index in order to return actual results can be temporarily blocked before the rebuild is complete. For instance, the Rebuild Index task is examined the offline activity, to be run when some people want to access the database. Generally, this means during the schedule maintenance window.
Nightly, if needed: If index gets fragmented fast, and users have a maintenance window every night that allows to run Rebuild Index task, with all other maintenance tasks; then do so. The index fragmentation will degrade overall performance of each index. As such, users have a nightly maintenance window, rebuilding will not harm, and also help to boost the performance of server. Weekly, at minimal: If users cannot perform this task every night, then, at minimum, it will run once a week, during the maintenance window.
If users can wait more than a week, risk hurting the SQL performance due to the negative effect of empty space and logical fragmentation. Consider other alternatives: If users do not have a maintenance window long enough to run the task at least once a week, then they can consider other alternatives like :. Download Purchase Now. The speed of index fragments depends on how it is used and will vary from one database to another. Let us consider the percent of index fragmentation:.
If users will be able to track this data for a period of time, they will determine how quickly all indexes fragments, and how often you should rebuild them. But, if at this level, there might be chances that users can use scripting techniques to rebuild all indexes rather than Maintenance Plan Wizard.
Go through these two manual approaches that will help to rebuild indexes SQL server database. Have a look:. Provide the suitable database and table information.The SQL Server Database Engine automatically maintains indexes whenever insert, update, or delete operations are made to the underlying data.
Over time these modifications can cause the information in the index to become scattered in the database fragmented. Fragmentation exists when indexes have pages in which the logical ordering, based on the key value, does not match the physical ordering inside the data file.
Heavily fragmented indexes can degrade query performance and cause your application to respond slowly. You can remedy index fragmentation by reorganizing or rebuilding an index. For partitioned indexes built on a partition scheme, you can use either of these methods on a complete index or a single partition of an index.
Rebuilding an index drops and re-creates the index. This removes fragmentation, reclaims disk space by compacting the pages based on the specified or existing fill factor setting, and reorders the index rows in contiguous pages.
When ALL is specified, all indexes on the table are dropped and rebuilt in a single transaction. Reorganizing an index uses minimal system resources. It defragments the leaf level of clustered and non-clustered indexes on tables and views by physically reordering the leaf-level pages to match the logical, left to right, order of the leaf nodes. Reorganizing also compacts the index pages.
Compaction is based on the existing fill factor value. The first step in deciding which defragmentation method to use is to analyze the index to determine the degree of fragmentation. By using the system function sys. For partitioned indexes, sys. The result set returned by the sys. After the degree of fragmentation is known, use the following table to determine the best method to correct the fragmentation.
Reorganizing an index is always executed online. To achieve availability similar to the reorganize option, you should rebuild indexes online. However, the actual values may vary from case to case. It is important that you experiment to determine the best threshold for your environment.The purpose of the SQL Server index is pretty much the same as in its distant relative — the book index — it allows you to get to the information quickly, but instead of navigating through the book, it indexes a SQL Server database.
SQL Server indexes are created on a column level in both tables and views. If an index is created on the primary key, whenever a search for a row of data based on one of the primary key values is performed, the SQL Server will locate searched value in the index, and then use that index to locate the entire row of data. This means that the SQL Server does not have to perform a full table scan when searching for a particular row, which is much more performance intensive task —consuming more time and using more SQL Server resources.
Relational indexes can be created even before there is data in the specified table, or even on tables and views in another database. After indexes are created, they will undergo automatic maintenance by the SQL Server Database Engine whenever insert, update or delete operations are executed on the underlying data. Even so, these automatic modifications will continuously scatter the information in the index throughout the database — fragmenting the index over time. The result — indexes now have pages where logical ordering based on the key-value differs from the physical ordering inside the data file.
This means that there is a high percentage of free space on the index pages and that SQL Server has to read a higher number of pages when scanning each index. Also, ordering of pages that belong to the same index gets scrambled and this adds more work to the SQL Server when reading an index — especially in IO terms.
The Index fragmentation impact on the SQL Server can range from decreased efficiency of queries — for servers with low-performance impact, all the way to the point where SQL Server completely stops using indexes and resorts to the last-straw solution — full table scans for each and every query. As mentioned before, full table scans will drastically impact SQL Server performance and this is the final alarm to remedy index fragmentation on the SQL Server.
Generally, in order to solve any problem, it is essential to first and foremost locate it, and isolate the affected area before applying the correct remedy. Fragmentation can be easily detected by running the system function sys. It can be run only against a specific index in the table or view, all indexes in the specific table or view, or vs.
Why, when and how to rebuild and reorganize SQL Server indexes
After the fragmentation has been detected, the next step is to determine its impact on the SQL Server and if any course of action needs to be taken.
There is no exact information on the minimal amount of fragmentation that affects the SQL Server in a specific way to cause performance congestion, especially since the SQL Server environments greatly vary from one system to another.
Here is the reasoning behind the thresholds above which will help you to determine if you should perform index rebuild or index reorganization:. Index reorganization is a process where the SQL Server goes through the existing index and cleans it up.
Index rebuild is a heavy-duty process where an index is deleted and then recreated from scratch with an entirely new structure, free from all piled up fragments and empty-space pages. While index reorganization is a pure cleanup operation that leaves the system state as it is without locking-out affected tables and views, the rebuild process locks the affected table for the whole rebuild period, which may result in long down-times that could not be acceptable in some environments.
But reorganizing index is much better from the efficiency standpoint since it does not lock the affected indexed table during the course of operation.
Servers with regular maintenance periods e. Provide appropriate database and table details and execute following code in SQL Server Management Studio to reorganize all indexes on a specific table:. Provide appropriate database and table details and execute following code in SQL Server Management Studio to rebuild all indexes on a specific table:. Solutions Products Downloads Prices Support. What's new What's next. Solution center.